The Basics of Backend Development

July 8, 2022

back end development

The internet would not have much to offer if back-end development weren’t present. The front-end development is what you see and interact with when you use a website. Back-end development is used when there is more to a website than what first meets the eye.

Back-end development, often known as “server-side” development, is making all the internal workings of a website or application invisible to the user. A server, a database, and an application typically make up the back-end.

back end development

When you use a website and enter data, that data is saved in a database located on a server. Your results are then returned as a front-end code for the website. Purchasing a plane ticket on a website illustrates back-end development in action. The front-end development of the website is everything you see. 

However, if you’re looking to become a back-end developer, you’ve come to the right place. This blog post will explore the basics of back-end development and teach you everything you need to know to get started in this exciting field. So if you’re ready to learn, this post has something for you. Keep reading!

What Is Back-End Development?

The term “back-end development” refers to developing server-side logic that controls web applications from the back-end. Back-end development, as the name implies, involves server-side web application logic and integration and tasks such as API creation, library development, and working with system components.

Back-end developers administer and maintain a website’s back-end, including databases, servers, and applications.

client side

Back-end development focuses on delivering back-end services rather than front-end ones. Back-end developers create software that allows a database and a web application to interact with one another.

Back-end developers administer and maintain a website’s back-end, including databases, servers, and applications. They also make decisions about what you won’t be able to see.

Who Is a Back-End Developer?

Now that you’ve gotten an overview of back-end development, it’s important to understand what it entails. Back-end developers are in charge of website architecture, scripting, and code that bridges the website’s database to the user’s browser. The data must be kept consistent and intact.

stack developer

A back-end web developer is a software developer that specializes in designing, building, and testing the back-end/business logic of an application. Back-end developers are in charge of choosing the best and most appropriate tools and technologies for project works, together with other development team members.

Types of Back-End Languages

The file size, performance, compatibility, number of lines of code needed, and programming style will vary amongst back-end programming languages. Object-oriented programming, a method of programming that groups characteristics and functions within objects, is used in several back-end scripting languages.

Other programming languages might be compiled rather than interpreted, impacting the application’s load time, readability, and processing requirements. Here are the different types of back-end programming languages:


All the C features are combined with object-oriented programming tools like classes in C++. It is utilized as a low-level scripting language to effectively communicate with system hardware for improved performance.

visual aspects

This makes it perfect for system-level performance-sensitive applications like video games, huge web apps, and other use-cases.


The preferred language for windows servers and environments is C#. If your web development team uses Microsoft technologies like ASP.NET as the foundation of your technological stack, C# will probably be the most effective language for them to use.


The object-oriented, general-purpose computer programming language Java was created with cross-platform interoperability in mind. Java programs can be run on any computer with the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) installed.

JavaScript (Node.js)

Node.js proved to the world that this all-purpose object-oriented scripting language, which was previously thought of as a front-end development scripting language, could also be utilized on the server-side of applications.

front end programming languages

JavaScript, one of the fundamental web technologies, is currently a well-liked option generally for full-stack development.


The most used back-end language for the web page is PHP code. In addition to having a large codebase and a long history of open-source developer community support, PHP has a low learning curve and is well suited for use as the back end of websites. PHP was likely powering the back end if you’ve used WordPress to create a personal website.


A powerful library for data processing is available in the general-purpose scripting language Python. Python’s straightforward syntax and compact code length make it a more productive scripting language for back-end development. Also, it’s ideal for AI-driven and machine learning projects due to its simplicity, flexibility, powerful libraries and frameworks, platform independence and large communities.


Perl is a general-purpose coding language created by Larry Wall in the 1990s and is well-known in the Linux and Unix communities.

server side scripting language

Text editing and log management are two areas in which Perl excels. It works well for quickly creating brief automation programs.


The functional and object-oriented programming paradigms are supported by Scala’s general-purpose programming language. The JVM, compatible with Java, still supports Scala because it is based on Java.


Ruby is a dynamically-typed general-purpose coding language created in the middle of the 1990s by Yukihiro “Matz” Matsumoto and is renowned for its programmer productivity.

frontend and backend web developer

It is renowned for its capacity to include metaprogramming (code that can change while running) into apps and for supporting procedural, functional, and object-oriented programming paradigms.

Back-End Tools and Technology

Back-end development can be far more diverse, primarily influenced by JavaScript, HTML, CSS, and other back-end frameworks leveraging these languages.

To simplify, we’ll divide the server-side into four key “software stack” components: the server, the database, the operating system, and the software. More details regarding each of these back-end elements are provided below:


The server is the engine of the network out of the four parts of your back-end stack development, whether on-premises or in the cloud. These powerful computers provide the shared resources—such as file storage, security and encryption, databases, email, and web development services—that networks require to function.

HTML, CSS, and JavaScript

Once you understand the fundamentals of on-site servers, broaden your understanding by looking into virtualization, which describes how servers are set up to host different apps, and containerization, which describes another way that servers set up their operating systems to host discrete programs.


In the context of a website, databases serve as the brains that give websites their dynamic nature. When you ask a website for something, whether you’re looking for a product in an online store or looking for hotels in a particular state, the database is in charge of accepting your request, retrieving the information, and sending it back to the website.

New and modified data can be added when people interact with databases via a website or application. Whether users write articles to a CMS, upload photographs to a social network profile, or update their customer information, they can alter information in a database from the browser.


Middleware essentially refers to any server-side software that links an application’s front and back end. Imagine middleware as the plumbing for your website—it sends requests and responses back and forth from your application to the server or database.

Like plumbing in a house, middleware is invisible but necessary, and it must be dependable and consistently perform the expected tasks. Middleware (server-side software) creates a middle layer between the app(s) and the network, including the server, database, operating system, and others, to enable client-server interaction.

front-end web development

Regardless of whether it is the presentation or the business layer, middleware can be multi-layered and arranged into several tiers of a website. Web APIs can also be used in this area of the stack to act as a link between the business layer and the presentation layer.

Also, middleware offers data integration and error management services while enabling communication between on-premises and cloud applications.

Additionally, effective middleware may power user interaction, business process management, content management, authentication, and many other IT-related functions. An illustration of a server-side JavaScript framework is Koa.js.


These days, it’s impossible to discuss the back-end element of an application without mentioning APIs (application programming interfaces) and the smooth connections they make between software, apps, databases, and services.

Most server-side software designs are constructed using APIs, which frequently take the place of more complex programming to enable software communication and data transmission.

Common Skills Needed for Back-End Development

Three devices—servers, databases, and application programming interfaces—have their back-ends developed. A back-end developer should frequently be familiar with these systems’ programming languages.

Python, Java, .NET, Haskell, Clojure, Structured Query Language (SQL), RoR, and PHP are some of these languages. Back-end developers should be familiar with the operation of servers, databases, and APIs. They won’t know how to create one without that. They ought to also:

  • Understand accessibility and security requirements.
  • Since they will frequently be dealing with front-end developers, they should be familiar with front-end web technologies, including HyperText Markup Language (HTML), Cascading Style Sheets (CSS), and JavaScript.
web pages use html codes
  • Possess the ability to control a hosting environment, including database administration and app scaling as workloads vary.
  • Know version control and documentation so others can continue where you left off as a developer without getting lost or making illogical modifications or adjustments.

Process of Back-End Development

The portion of an app concealed from users is called the back-end, CMS (content management system), or back-office (but not to the admin or developers).

It has to:

  • Use the app to access the information consumers need,
  • Combine and restructure such information,
  • Then deliver it to the requester in the revised form.

To make the front-end active, the back-end enters the app, to put it another way.

A back-end platform has three responsibilities, as was already mentioned. Take a look at each in more detail:

Access the Information Users Require Through the App

Regardless of the product’s nature, customers of an app constantly request data. This is true whether it’s a “get-nice-info” app that displays maps and schedules for public transportation or a game for kids that enables players to create their own Barbie dolls.

Combine the Information Gathered and Transform It

An app may need data or information from various databases found in many locations. The back-end job at this stage is to locate the precise information the user wants within the numerous, vast databases and then integrate it in a way that produces effective results.

Imagine you’ve downloaded a navigation app and are now interested in learning how to get to your new job promptly. In this case, the app will require access to the databases of your city buses as well as any other forms of public transportation, taxi services, and Google Maps.

full stack developer

Sounds difficult, huh? Although it can be difficult, a solid back-end can precisely locate the needed data. Its structure is predicated on the specific concerns it will need to address during its life, which is the key.

This raises the issue of what happens if the queries the back-end must respond to alter over time. Fortunately, there’s no cause for concern. The back-ends are always optimizable, and back-end developers can always add new job orders or queries to be answered within its code.

Give the Information Back to the User

The data must then be delivered to the user when the back-end has compiled and aggregated all required information. But how many people can read the information that the back-end generates in pure code?

Probably not more than a few. As a result, “translators” are required in the back-end to convert the pure code into human language.

Importance of Back-End Development

Full-stack developers must concentrate on front-end and back-end development when building a new website. The code that website users may see is the front-end of an application. Typically, front-end code develops user interfaces that allow a program to communicate with the actual users.

The back-end coding is complicated and crucial because it works with the application, server, and database.

On the other side, the back-end code communicates with the server and sends information for the users to view. The application, web server, and database are all dealt with by the back-end code. The back-end coding is complicated and crucial because it works with the application, server, and database.

Information Exchange

As previously said, a website’s back-end comprises three essential components: an application, a web server, and a database. Users must enter a login ID and password to access the website’s user interface. The back-end verifies the user’s provided login information and password.

web developers

Similarly, any data entered by the user is saved in the databases by the back-end code. Additionally, the back-end retrieves data from the database and sends it to the user interface for the user to see. As a result, a website’s back-end serves as its framework and a means of information sharing.

Various Environments

Businesses now use a variety of environments to deploy websites and online apps. For instance, although some businesses prefer to install web applications on the cloud, others prefer to run websites on web servers. Many companies even combine the two hosting solutions to gain advantages like improved performance and scalability.

The configuration of the web server varies from network to network. Additionally, the programmers frequently split up the server-side workload among several computers. Developers must customize the back-end of websites due to the variety of hosting settings.

The Application Logic

To make the creation and maintenance of websites simpler, most programmers today keep the user interface and application logic of a website distinct. The application logic handles the routine data processing needed by each business and an application’s domain and infrastructure components.

front end developer

The application logic of a website is located in the back-end. To enable seamless switching from one front-end to another and numerous user interfaces to access the same application logic, developers must concentrate on back-end web development.

Adding Utility to Each Front-End Functionality

Programmers must create back-end code as part of the website development process to make each front-end functionality more useful. For instance, they must write code in a server-side programming language to add functionality to a user login form.

The back-end code will collect the values each time a user submits his login information and compare them to the stored information in databases. Similarly, back-end programming gives different forms, profiles, and account capabilities. Consequently, without high-quality back-end programming, no website can run.

Impacts the Website’s User Experience

In the long run, a website’s popularity is influenced by its usability and user experience. All operations are necessary to make a website work is carried out at the back-end, as was already said. Therefore, the quality of the back-end code will affect the user experience provided by a website.

Any flaws in the back-end code might cause a website to frequently crash, operate slowly, or have other performance problems. Nevertheless, small back-end code flaws can open the website to targeted malware and security intrusions.

version control software

The back-end code’s quality and organization must be a developer’s top priority if they want the website to give a richer user experience without hiccups. The developers must choose the appropriate programming language and framework for back-end web development.

The programmers must select the server-side programming language that best suits the project’s requirements since they have various choices. They must also choose the appropriate web development framework and tools for the particular server-side programming language.

Final Words: The Basics of Back-End Development

A strong back-end that is well-built is essential for a positive front-end user experience. You can create the most skillfully created app and have the most original concept for a mobile business.

SQL server

But ultimately, if your app’s core doesn’t operate, it won’t succeed, and consumers will immediately delete it from their devices.

About the author: Joe Silk -

Joseph is a Start-up Consultant, Copywriter & Business Owner with 9 years of PQE. He is extremely client-centric, able to work on a wide range of topics and deliver high-quality standards on projects of all sizes for clients all over the world. View on Linkedin